In addition, the phosphate removal experiments demonstrated that the optimum dosage of RMPACl was 147.5 mg/l for the decontamination of phosphate with an initial concentration of 5 mg/l, which is much smaller than that of PACl. By adding coagulants in the form of cations and organics, one can improve the settling rate of the minerals as well as the degree of solid bed compaction. Chitosan as a natural flocculant was added to the BL treatment process to support the PACl. A methodology is suggested for optimizing key parameters for efficient coagulation – coagulant dosage and pH value. Alkali titration and Ferron species analysis were employed to investigate the hydrolysis performance and species distribution. Buffer intensity is an important parameter in assessing coagulation pH adjustment. With the increase of initial concentration in the range of 25-150 mg/L and of 250 to 1500 mg/L for direct blue 71 dye and COD respectively, the removal efficiency for all coagulants increased at first (from 25-75 mg/L) for direct blue 71 dye and from (250-1000 mg/L) for COD then declined. An automatic control with feedback from the coagulation process was evaluated as practical and reliable. In particular, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors are examples of micropollutants that are detected at the drinking water, ppb, or even ppb level. Prior to simulation testing, a series of batch tests was performed to determine the optimum state of dosing corresponding to the monitor's output. In this paper, the effects of two different coagulants, aluminum sulfate (AS) and polyaluminum chloride (PAC), were examined for the treatment of PFPW. Response surface methodology was used to optimize coagulation–flocculation (CF) process of MDF wastewater. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. The effect of the SO4(2-)/Al ratio, dosage, and pH were examined in detail. Increasing aluminium (Al) dosages reduced the time required for particles destabilization and increased the rate at which the number of primary particles decreased. coagulation. Coagulation is an important part of the water treatment process. A large amount of Alb, i.e. With the focus on improving upstream treatment processes, stabilising finished water quality can be both inefficient and costly if it is ignored. Stabilization, charge neutralization destabilization, restabilization and sweep zones occur successively with increasing PACl dosages with the final pH values fixed at 7.0 and 8.0, but restabilization zone disappears at final pH 10.0. Results from PDA experiments indicated that the rate of floc formation (measured immediately following coagulant addition) was indicative of overall process performance. In conclusion, alkalinity and turbidity impacted antibiotics removal by the process of coagulation, but the effect of alkalinity on antibiotics removal was greater than turbidity. In a series of laboratory experiments it was observed that the rate and stoichiometry of aluminum hydroxide precipitation depended on pH and Al dose, and on HCOâ⁻, SOâ²⁻, and natural organic matter concentrations. Although the results can be reasonably well explained in terms of established ideas, a detailed understanding of the ‘sweep flocculation’ mechanism is not yet available. The results showed that a number of new compounds were formed due to the presence of PO43- and SiO32-. However, PACl hydrolysis prior to coagulation and the size of PACl precipitates had a negligible effect on the performance of sweep coagulation. One method identified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for reduction in THM precursors is improved clarification. Fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry was used to characterize the molecular-weight distributions of DOM before and after coagulation. rapid reactive species by ferron assay, could form for alum and PACl0 in the weak acidic pH range, which transforms quickly into Alc after aging. The results of these tend to suggest that the polymeric aluminium(III) hydroxide species have a size between 10–20 Å; these have an average residual positive charge of 0.54, and constitute about 80% of the total aluminium in the hydrolysed solution. It is concluded that at the relatively high buffering capacity (HCO3- concentration above 1.8 megAL) and close to neutral pH values (7.0