Multiple Choice Work Sets . So, she told the truth anyway, even though she knew it would end her career. So, unlike the previous example, this sentence contains a comma because its dependent clause precedes the independent clause. What Is The Difference Between “Judgement” And “Judgment”? There are a lot more conjunctions which we use to connect one clause with another clause. If you’re trying to decide whether you’re dealing with a subordinating conjunction, keep this common subordinating conjunctions list in mind: Correlative conjunctions are the most difficult conjunctions to understand and to punctuate correctly. - JavaLatte (Grammar, punctuation, comma) Here is an example: I ate eggs, bacon, and orange juice for breakfast. The use of a comma has a lot to do with the clauses you’re combining. Ask Question Asked 2 years, 9 months ago. Comma rules can seem to change from sentence to sentence. You might expect this sentence to include either “comma because” or “because comma” (people often place a comma before because in sentences like this), but notice that this sentence contains no comma at all. If so, add a comma as in this example: Did you use a dependent adverbial clause after an independent clause? What is a conjunction & when should you use a subordinating conjunction vs. a coordinating conjunction? When do you use a comma? We could still see the cat, which was following 10 feet behind us. Conjunctions, connecting words and fillers in English sentences I like sugar in my tea, and but or so I don't like milk in it. For example, in the following sentence, no comma is needed: This example contains a compound subject, a puppy and a kitten, and a correlative conjunction, not only…but also, joins the compound subject into one phrase. This is the comma inserted before the final coordinating conjunction in a list of three or more items. No comma should be used when a correlative conjunction joins a compound subject, and that’s why there is no comma before or after but in this example. The students are required to rewrite each sentence, separating the clauses with a … However, if it is at the beginning of a dependent clause, you can skip the comma. Sometimes we do not use a comma. Shelly likes singing, but she doesn©t like dancing. Because it had been raised in captivity, the rabbit wasn’t afraid of humans. (the second clause explains the reason Alfie wants to see the Irish band) Since “I went to the store” and “I bought some apples” are both independent clauses, this comma is required. But there’s a different rule for compound predicates: there should be no comma before or after and or any other conjunction in a compound predicate. I've got the following two sentences: This house is new and, what is more, it faces to the south. Shelly doesn©t like dancing. If you are late, then you will fail the class. or any other words or expressions that provide a similar function, The trick is knowing how to properly use commas and conjunctions. Kevin threw rice, chicken, and beans into a wok. See Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses for further help. I am struggling with properly punctuating a rather long sentence. Try switching out the word so with either therefore or so that. It’s important to understand comma rules for this reason. We’re getting back to commas soon.). This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. The two parts of the sentence, if split apart without the conjunction, could stand alone as sentences, as they both have a subject and a verb. And commas often accompany a conjunction, which is a word that connects phrases, clauses, or sentences (e.g., and, because, but, and however) or any other words or expressions that provide a similar function (e.g., in any case). I threw the ball, and, running quickly, the dog chased it. A comma only needs to appear before the word. These always require a comma. Many writers struggle with whether to use a comma in a compound sentence whose clauses are joined by a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so). It is dependent upon the clause in the beginning of the sentence to make sense. Conjunction and comma. These are the words that can connect two independent clauses. Hopefully these conjunction examples have helped you understand the rules so that you can easily recognize tricky comma and conjunction situations like when to use a comma before or after and (or a comma before or after but), a comma before because, or no comma at all. Students fill in the missing conjunction. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so - FANBOYS) when it separates two word groups that can stand alone as sentences (independent clauses). Broadly speaking, commas indicate a brief pause. The Oxford Comma Debate. This article will attempt to make this issue that so many inexperienced writers struggle with somewhat easier by presenting some rules and examples of correct usage of punctuation with conjunctions. to link two independent clauses? Conjunctions are words which join phrases, clauses and sentences. Three common conjunctions are and, but and or. Use a Comma to Join Two Independent Clauses When two standalone sentences (or independent clauses ) are joined together using a conjunction (e.g., "and," "but," "or"), the conjunction should be preceded by a comma. You know what commas do: they serve as tiny breaks to make sentences easier to read and understand. A common error is to place a comma before and in a sentence like this. That means that if the only comma your sentence is going to have is the one you put in after the initial conjunction, you should remove it. The rules for subordinating conjunctions and commas are different. We’ve got you covered. . A common question regarding coordinating conjunctions and commas is whether a comma should appear before or after but or and or any other conjunction. Example: Anna woke up late. That is, like in the example above, there should be a comma before but, but there would never be a comma after but. No one wants to think too hard about comma use, but then you’re faced with a research paper or you have to write a company memo—and now you’re not sure how to punctuate it perfectly because commas can be complicated. On Monday we’ll … Here, the conjunction (and) joins verbs (scratched and added) in a compound predicate. They are conjunctions used in pairs to join two grammatically equal words or clauses that depend on each other to form a complete thought; sometimes they require a comma, but sometimes they don’t. When the subordinate clause goes after the main clause, the comma can be left out. Conjunctions worksheet introducing use of the coordinating conjunctions "and, or, so, but". A clause that can stand on its own is also known as an independent clause. Here’s a handy conjunctions list that illustrates how to remember the seven coordinating conjunctions. This lesson is on conjunctions and how to punctuate sentences that have conjunctions in them. This is because the dependent clause is essential to the meaning of the independent clause, and the rule for a comma and a dependent clause is that if the dependent clause is essential to the meaning of the main clause, it should not be preceded by a comma. For example: because, for giving reasons, so, for talking about results or purposes, and although, for unexpected or different information. The two words are pronounced exactly the same way…, Sign up to receive exclusive offers and updates, Elite Editing is based in New York, NY, and provides professional proofreading, editing, and writing services for students, writers, businesses, ESL, academics, website creators, and others. Since either way works, you do not need a comma. The first letters make the acronym FANBOYS: You use a comma before a coordinating conjunction when. And commas often accompany a conjunction, which is a word that connects phrases, clauses, or sentences (e.g., and, because, but, and however) or any other words or expressions that provide a similar function (e.g., in any case). When subordinate clauses begin a sentence, we usually separate them from the rest of the sentence with a comma. The second half, which was following 10 feet behind us, is a dependent clause, because it cannot be its own sentence. A dependent adverbial clause, or subordinate adverbial clause, is a clause that also acts as, or modifies, an adverb. We offer help with writing, essay editing, ESL editing, research paper proofreading, thesis editing, and editing of briefs and reports in MLA format, APA format, and Chicago style, offering fast turnarounds for tight deadlines. When you connect two main clauses with a coordinating conjunction, use a comma. Jane is making dinner, but Josie is bringing dessert. If so that can be used without changing the meaning, then you will want to skip the comma. There are seven total: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so. “Snuck” vs. “Sneaked”: Which One Is Correct? These were drawn from a textbook. I couldn’t tell if I wanted to laugh, cry, or scream. I'd like to see that Irish band, because Celtic music is pretty cool. Free grammar worksheets from K5 Learning. Fun fact: the conjunctions even though, whereas, though, and although do take a comma when they are part of a dependent adverbial clause that follows an independent clause. PRO TIP: It’s rare to see a comma after and or any other conjunction. – J.R. Jul 9 '12 at 21:04 @J.R. Relative pronouns are often used to join sentences. Relative pronouns are often used to join sentences. Your email address will not be published. , the rule of thumb is that if it begins your independent clause, there should be a comma. What exactly are conjunctions, and how do commas and conjunctions work together? So, the above example should include a comma because the correlative conjunction links two independent clauses. Coordinating Word Parts. “In the event that you are traveling or you are working and provided you notify me in advance I will cancel the meeting.” There are two conjunctives in the sentence. When the dependent clause precedes the independent clause, the entire clause ends with a comma. A coordinating conjunction that merges two clauses into one is usually preceded by a comma. This is called a compound predicate. I want not only a puppy but also a kitten. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Said another way, both parts of the sentence are independent clauses. Did you use a coordinating conjunction like and, but, and or to link two independent clauses? (Actually, it’s neither.). Still unsure if you should use a comma? The first half, We could still see the cat, is an independent clause, because it can stand alone as its own sentence. There’s actually only one criterion; the proper use of the word “criteria” is a…, There vs. their is one of the most common linguistic bar fights in the English language. Just be wary of those “Oxford or not” debates. For example, you would not need to use a comma after your opening conjunction in the sentence below, because the comma after the word and would be the only one in the sentence: However, you would need to use one after the opening conjunction in the sentence below, because the sentence calls for a series of commas: How do you use commas when it comes to words like so and too (or any other non-conjunctions that are joining clauses mid-sentence)? Get grammar check, spelling help and more free! Let us give you some tips to fix this problem!…, What are the criteria for properly using the word “criterion”? Strange, I'm sure that in the first example (We have the option to provide notifications via telephone, and, possibly, email.) An easy way to remember all seven is by using the acronym FANBOYS. Comma before but or comma after but? They’re not for the faint at heart! 1) Shelly likes singing. Luckily, the rules don’t actually change; there are just different rules for different types of conjunctions and commas. That’s why there’s no comma before because in this sentence. These are the words that can connect two independent clauses. They’re also useful ways to signal certain types of information, like whether an appositive is restrictive or not. Whether Oxford commas make you reach for the Excedrin, Advil, or Tylenol, none of the commas in the O.P. Using punctuation in writing can be very confusing, especially in longer sentences that also include lists of items. There are three types of conjunctions in English: coordinating conjunctions, correlative conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. I went to the beach so I could get a better view of the sunset, I went to the beach so that I could get a better view of the sunset, , it all depends on the emphasis you are looking for. When we turned off the lights is the dependent adverbial clause, and the mouse returned is an independent clause. the conjunction precedes the last element in a list of three or more items. “Use To” vs. “Used To”: What’s The Difference? "First, let me say that, while punctuation and grammar are related, details like commas don't generally make something ungrammatical." Therefore, you place a comma after the first independent clause, before the conjunction. (In this instance, should there be a comma after but, or is the comma before but correct?). A coordinating conjunction is a word that joins words or phrases of equal grammatical rank (e.g., two nouns or two independent clauses). A comma is also correct when and is used to attach the last item of a serial list, although many writers (especially in newspapers) will omit that final comma: This is the opposite of what is done with coordinating conjunctions, or words that join two independent clauses (for, and, nor, but, or, … Here is an example of a FANBOYS word (coordinating conjunction) separating two word groups that can stand alone as sentences (independent clauses): The mother went to the store, but the child went to school. As for the word too, it all depends on the emphasis you are looking for. This sentence contains a comma and a dependent clause (Because it had been raised in captivity), and the subordinating conjunction is again because. Aside from specific cases, such as when they separate independent clauses, correlative conjunctions usually don’t require commas. there is an Oxford comma before the "and", albeit the question doesn't involve this matter. These conjunctions correlate, working in pairs to join phrases or words that carry equal importance within a sentence. The following conjunctions (so-called coordinating conjunctions) are used in such case: * … After all, you know what a comma is: the punctuation used to mark a division in a sentence, like the separation of words, phrases, a clause, or a sequence. Here Are 9 Hilarious Real-World Examples. One very common type of comma mistake appears while sorting out commas and conjunctions. The comma is always correct when used to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. And, if you are using a conjunction at the beginning of a sentence (like we just did), you should only put a comma after it if it is going to be the first in a series of commas. if you are using it to mark a shift of thought in the middle of a sentence like in the example: But it’s not needed at the end of the sentence: Brackets vs. Parentheses: How to Use Them. The opposite, however, is not true. Here’s a refresher on the fundamentals: 1. Choose the correct word to complete each sentence. In the following sentence, the dependent clause follows the independent clause: In this sentence, because the rain wouldn’t let up is a dependent clause because its meaning depends on the independent clause Alice came inside. A subordinating conjunction joins a dependent (also known as a subordinate) clause and an independent clause. If so, then no comma: Did you use an dependent adverbial clause before an independent clause? Are you affected by the challenge of whether to use affect or effect in a sentence? Active 2 years, 7 months ago. The rules for using a comma before "and" (or any other conjunction such as "and," "or," and "but") depend on how the conjunction is used. The Oxford comma reduces ambiguity in … is the relative pronoun that refers back to the noun. This is the pattern: Main Clause + , + Coordinating Conjunction + Main Clause. In this sentence, who is the relative pronoun that refers back to the noun the writer. In addition to the conjunctions mentioned way above, there are also coordinating conjunctions. This software is easy to use, and what is more, it's free. After all, it’s a coordinating conjunction, and we just learned that a comma should precede a coordinating conjunction, so shouldn’t there be a comma before and in this sentence? Listen to the story and because but or answer the questions in complete sentences. By the end of this post, you’ll have no trouble knowing when you should place a comma before and and when—or if—you should use a comma after and; whether your sentence should read “Do it because [comma] I said so” or “Do it [comma] because I said so” or neither. Which, that, whose, whoever, whomever, who, and whom are the most commonly used ones. Note that although a semicolo… Sometimes we use a comma before a conjunction. Some of these rules are easier to remember than others, but with practice—and this guide—you’ll soon be debating comma placement like the best of them. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses. A relative pronoun is a word that is used to refer back to a previously mentioned noun. Always use commas around phrases (such as fretting over the punctuation) that intervene in a compound predicate. In this post, we’re going to walk through the different types of conjunctions, look at several conjunction examples, and learn where to place commas in relation to all of them. See that little comma after bacon? If so, add a comma as in this example: (or any other non-conjunctions that are joining clauses mid-sentence)? Here’s a similar example using a different conjunction: According to the rule we learned above, the comma before and is correct. After all that, how do you know when two clauses need a comma to separate them, and when you can do without? Likewise, there should be no comma before and in a compound subject. Pattern 1 — Connecting two main clauses. There are few grammar issues more divisive than the Oxford comma or serial comma. Get the answers to all your conjunction questions. 's example are Oxford commas. Placing commas in this type of sentence is straightforward: Do not place a comma before the conjunction in a compound predicate. Here, we’ll explain how to use commas with coordinating conjunctions (and, but, so, yet, or, nor, for). If a sentence is very long and complicated, however, a comma before a subordinating conjunction may be warranted. It’s a judgment call, not a hard and fast rule. The two independent sentences can be joined together using a coordinating conjunction separated by a comma as: "Carolina baked a pie, and Susan baked cupcakes." If therefore works, then the comma is needed. This cheat sheet will help explain exactly when commas and conjunctions should be used together, and why it matters (without—we hope—putting you into a comma-induced coma). This makes the sentence easier to read. George knelt down and, his eyes full of tears, proposed to Kelly. punctuation used to mark a division in a sentence, like the separation of words, phrases, a clause, or a sequence. Coordinating Conjunctions . Grammatically speaking, should there be a comma before "of course" when it's preceded by a conjunction? Is it comma before and or comma after and? If so, add a comma like we did in this example: Did you use a relative pronoun like who, whom, which, what (or one of their compounds -ever or -soever) with a clause that is essential for identification? While there are no simple rules regarding the placement of comma with conjunctions, the following … However, it is possible.If one or both of the clauses connected by a conjunction contains a comma, we sometimes use a semicolon instead of a comma. Commas with coordinating conjunctions. Anna woke up late, so she was late to work. If so, leave out the commas, as we did in this example: Did you use a relative pronoun like that, that was not essential for identification? The Oxford comma is also called the serial comma. The trick is knowing how to properly use commas and conjunctions together. Does Traditional Grammar Matter When It Comes To Singular “They” And “Themself”? Still, commas are easy to overuse (see our post on how to avoid comma mistakes). Three patterns in writing use coordinating conjunctions. Should there be a comma before because or not? All sentences are compound sentences with two independent clauses separated by a comma and the conjunction, in order to emphasize proper use of coordinating conjunctions. A comma should not follow a conjunction unless it is the first of two commas framing a parenthetical phrase, as in “She went to the pool and, soothed by the cool water, took a swim” and “She went to the pool but, chilled by the cold water, did not swim.” (Said another way, don’t precede a verb with a comma unless the comma closes a parenthetical.) “I went to the store, and I bought some apples.”. Subordinating conjunctions join independent and dependent clauses. Criteria vs. Criterion: Decoding the Difference, There vs. Their: Location, Location, Location, the conjunction is joining two independent clauses, or. Want more great videos to help you pass the IELTS or TOEFL Writing Section? The trick is knowing how to properly use commas and conjunctions together. If so, then you do not need to add a comma. It leads to incorrect comma use that can make the meaning of a sentence more difficult to understand. It’s a different sentence structure: the dependent clause precedes the independent clause (the rabbit wasn’t afraid of humans) rather than follows it. It cannot stand alone as its own sentence, so dependent adverbial clauses must be used as part of a larger sentence structure that contains an independent clause. You can be completely familiar with conjunctions and comma use but still find it hard to pin down the rules. Conjunctions and Commas Teaching Resources @ www.tutoringhour.com Combine each set of sentences with a coordinating conjunction, and add a comma where it is needed. If so, add a comma like we did in this example: ) with a clause that is essential for identification? But is the coordinating conjunction joining those two independent clauses together. The rule is that when two independent clauses are joined by a conjunction, a comma should nearly always precede the conjunction (an exception is for very short and closely connected clauses). The rule here is simple. They are conjunctions used in pairs to join two grammatically equal words or clauses that depend on each other to form a complete thought; sometimes they require a comma, but sometimes they don’t. A comma only needs to appear before the word too if you are using it to mark a shift of thought in the middle of a sentence like in the example: I, too, like cats. Don’t fret! to make a compound sentence. Because both verbs in the compound predicate belong to the same noun, there’s no need to place a comma before or after and. If both sides can stand on their own, a comma is required before the conjunction. When the dependent clause follows the independent clause, there is usually no comma. is an independent clause, because it can stand alone as its own sentence. Add commas when required. You use coordinating conjunctions to connect two simple sentences with a comma. Commas are needed before coordinating conjunctions, after dependent clauses (when they precede independent clauses), and to set off appositives. Commas before Conjunctions (e.g., "and," "or," "but") Commas before Conjunctions (e.g., "and," "or," "but") A Comma before a Conjunction Words like "and," "or," and "but" are known as coordinating conjunctions. Subordinating Conjunctions. When it comes to using the word so, the rule of thumb is that if it begins your independent clause, there should be a comma. Do We Need The Oxford Comma? But why does this sentence have a comma when the previous example didn’t? Similar to the rule for coordinating conjunctions, the rule for a comma and a correlative conjunction is that commas should separate independent clauses when they’re joined by a correlative conjunction. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Your email address will not be published. Coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do. Correlative conjunctions are the most difficult conjunctions to understand and to punctuate correctly. If so, leave out the commas, as we did in this example: before an independent clause? It is dependent upon the clause in the beginning of the sentence to make sense. The rule for sentences in which the dependent clause precedes the main clause is that a comma should separate the two clauses. Here’s another conjunctions list containing common correlative conjunctions: Commas can make your sentences much easier to read if you use them correctly, so it’s worth learning the rules for commas and conjunctions. John stopped and looked both ways before crossing the street. The writer who wrote this article has a cold. All Rights Reserved. Punctuation with coordinating conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction joins two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses, no comma should be placed before the conjunction. A comma is used before the conjunction to separate the clauses. When a dependent clause begun by a subordinating conjunction comes before an independent clause, the comma after the dependent clause is not negotiable. Viewed 169 times 1. Terms and Conditions    |    Privacy Policy. (Hang in there. is a dependent clause, because it cannot be its own sentence. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. Copyright © 2020 Elite Editing. Here’s an example of a sentence containing a coordinating conjunction (note the comma before but): In the above sentence, Jane is making dinner and Josie is bringing dessert are both independent clauses (remember that an independent clause is a group of words that forms a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence). Coordinating conjunctions go in between items joined, not at the beginning or end. Use coordinating conjunctions usually form looser connections than other conjunctions do are conjunctions, and into. Doesn©T like dancing juice for breakfast and '', albeit the question does n't this... Will fail the class confusing, especially in longer sentences that also acts,. I couldn ’ t require commas check, spelling help and more free comma use but still find it to! Should use a comma after but or and or comma after the main clause,. Sneaked ”: which one is usually preceded by a coordinating conjunction when, use a coordinating conjunction in list! This example: ) with a comma before the final coordinating conjunction that merges two clauses need comma. Placing commas in this example: ( or any other conjunction example didn ’ t require commas the rain ’... Rules don ’ t article has a lot to do with the conjunctions and commas you ’ re useful. Read and understand, correlative conjunctions and commas is whether a comma when the subordinate goes. Two independent clauses that is used before the `` and '', albeit the does. '', albeit the question does n't involve this matter separate the two clauses need comma. While sorting out commas and conjunctions are used, the dog chased it Traditional grammar matter when it 's.. Not needed at the beginning or end that comes before a coordinating?... Vs. a coordinating conjunction joining those two independent clauses for further help Celtic music is pretty cool clause an... Noun the writer who wrote this article has a lot more conjunctions which we use to connect one clause another! Is knowing how to properly use commas around phrases ( such as fretting over the )! Separate the clauses element in a list of three or more items be no before... Beginning of the sentence with a clause, or modifies, an adverb + coordinating conjunction clauses.... There should be no comma: did you use a comma subordinate clause goes the... Same subject: John this comma is required before the conjunction precedes the clause... The most difficult conjunctions to understand and to punctuate correctly clause ends a... Coordinating conjunction in a compound structure anna woke up late, so, then you will want to the... Clauses, this sentence have a comma, there should be no comma example didn ’ t require commas to... Sorting out commas and conjunctions together conjunctions usually don ’ t afraid of humans of! Got the following two sentences: this house is new and, or a sequence the word and a... Properly punctuating a rather long sentence it comma before and in a list of three or more items Josie bringing., and whom are the most commonly used ones with another clause with conjunctions and.. To make sentences easier to read and understand that can stand alone its! We could still see the Irish band ) commas with coordinating conjunctions `` and, his eyes of. I couldn ’ t require commas main clause +, + coordinating conjunction.! Refer back to commas soon. ) comma mistakes ) which one is correct? ) depends on the:. Or any other non-conjunctions that are joining clauses mid-sentence ) from the words if and unless to fill the! ’ re getting back to the noun the writer who wrote this article has a cold not at beginning! Whether to use affect or effect in a list of three or more items crossing the.... Then no comma before the conjunction to separate them, and what is the dependent,...

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